After doing the whole "enterprise" programming for a while, I'm seriously disillusioned by the language itself and always feel quite hampered if I have to go back to it. The project size of your average Android app isn't too intimidating and the libraries are actually quite nice regarding their coding style, but if I could avoid Java, I'd certainly do.
So that's the question: Can I avoid it? While there are lots of JVM language that would be an option on desktops and servers, the Dalvik VM and the devices themselves pose some limits. This seems to be a bit better in 2.2 with the JIT, but limiting myself to the cutting edge would be a rather harsh decision.
The only alternative I know that's used somewhat seems to be Scala. Is there some possibility I'm missing? Clojure seems to run in exactly the problems I've illustrated above with Dalvik, but as the AppInventor is built on Kawa there might be hope for a Lisp on the mobile platform?
What other languages are already usable or make strides towards that?
Personally, I'd say Scala is your best bet right now. It works really well, with the one drawback being that you are required to include Scala as a dependency (which will increase the size of your application).